Fleischer Museum
American Collection of Impressionism
The California School

The Fleischer Museum is the only museum dedicated to the preservation of the American Impressionism, California School. Although the California School has long been overlooked as a regional school of American Impressionism, recent scholars and definitive exhibitions have established it as an important and integral part of the rich history of American Art.

Selections from the American Impressionism, California School collection that best illustrate the growth of Impressionism, regionally and chronologically, are on display in this gallery. They have been indexed by geographical region, other influences, and artist. You can design your own tour.

Although the experience of seeing the paintings firsthand cannot be replaced by digital representations, we hope the Fleischer Cyber Gallery elevates your awareness of and appreciation for the American Impressionism, California School. And, of course, we invite you to enjoy these and many other paintings from the Fleischer collection when in Scottsdale!

Regional Landscapes

Impressionism reached San Francisco, the cultural center of the west coast after the Gold Rush, in the early 1900s. It began spreading down the coast after the earthquake of 1906. Artist communities sprang up throughout the state, from San Francisco to San Diego.

In California the northern and southern regional climates, vegetation, terrain, and general lighting are quite different. To view examples of paintings of a specific region, click on the area of interest on the map of California or on the name of the region below.

Although these artists lived in California and painted many California landscapes, they still traveled outside of their community painting scenes of the American West and Europe. Scenes of Arizona were particularly popular. The spectacular rugged rock formations provide quite a contrast to the verdant California landscapes.

Art Centers in California

Arizona ..... Northern California ..... Southern California

Other Influences

Historical Time Line

The American Impressionism, California School was active from 1900 to around 1940. Prior to 1900, traditional landscape painting was dominant. The timeline indicates some major historical milestones that helped shape the development of Impressionism in America. Impressionism in California was strongest between 1900 and 1915. After 1915, several other modern art movements co-existed. By looking at examples of paintings that embody hints of other art movements, one can see the gradual shift from traditional landscape-influenced paintings to Modernist-influenced paintings via Impressionism.
Paintings are classified as Impressionist based on characteristics such as their technical application of brushwork, palette and faithful replication of natural lighting. This labeling does not preclude other art styles, however, from influencing the same painting. Art movements are never as pure as historical classifications would lead you to believe. This is especially true in California where art movements ended their migration at the Pacific Ocean from the East coast of America. Various movements tended to linger in California and co-mingle in a unique and interesting fashion.
Other Art Movements

Artists of
American Impressionism
California School

A painting is not only influenced by time and place. The artists' own life experiences temper the expressive tone of the painting. A full listing of the artists of the American Impressionism, California School currently represented in the Fleischer collection is given below. To gain a deeper appreciation for the artist behind the painting, short biographies have been included for the artists who have created the paintings currently on display in the Fleischer Cyber Gallery. For quicker access in locating a specific artist, click on the alphabetical category that includes the last name of the artist you are seeking.



~ Arcieri, Charles F.
~ Bartlett, Dana
~ Barton, Loren
~ Betts, Louis
~ Bischoff, Franz
~ Brandriff, George Kennedy
~ Braun, Maurice
~ Brown, Benjamin Chambers
~ Cadenasso, Giuseppe
~ Cahill, William
~ Chittenden, Alice Brown
~ Clapp, William
~ Clark, Alson Skinner
~ Coburn, Frank
~ Cooper, Colin Campbell
~ Cotton, John
~ Coutts, Gordon
~ Cuneo, Rinaldo
~ De Longpre, Paul
~ De Longpre, Raoul M.
~ Derome, Albert
~ Dixon, Maynard L.
~ Dougherty, Paul I.
~ Fleury, Albert
~ Forsythe, Victor Clyde
~ Francisco, John Bond
~ Fries, Charles Arthur
~ Gamble, John
~ Gilbert, Arthur Hill
~ Gile, Selden C.
~ Gray, H. Percy
~ Groll, Albert L.
~ Harris, Sam Hyde
~ Hill, Thomas
~ Hills, Anna Althea
~ Hinkle, Clarence Keiser
~ Hobart, Clark
~ Hunt, Thomas L.
~ Hunter, Isabel



~ Judson, William L.
~ Kende, Geza
~ Kleitsch, Joseph
~ Kosa, Emil
~ Lauritz, Paul
~ Mannheim, Jean
~ Mathews, Arthur
~ McGlynn, Thomas Arnold
~ Merriam, James
~ Mitchell, Alfred R.
~ Morgan, Mary De Neale
~ Pages, Jules
~ Parshall, Dewitt
~ Payne, Edgar
~ Pell, Jacob
~ Peters, Charles Rollo
~ Piazzoni, Gottardo
~ Puthuff, Hanson D.
~ Putnam, Donald



~ Raphael, Joseph
~ Redmond, Granville S.
~ Reiffel, Charles
~ Rich, John Hubbard
~ Rider, Arthur Grover
~ Riley, Mary G.
~ Ritschel, William F.
~ Rose, Guy
~ Ross, Mary H.
~ Sayre, Fred Grayson
~ Schuster, Donna Norine
~ Smith, Jack Wilkinson
~ Smith, John Christopher
~ Stacey, John F.
~ Stark, Jack Gage
~ Symons, George Gardner
~ Thomas, Stephen S.
~ Von Schneidau, Christian
~ Wachtel, Elmer
~ Wachtel, Marion K.
~ Warner, Nell Walker
~ Warshawsky, Abraham G.
~ Wendt, William
~ White, Orrin
~ Wores, Theodore
~ Young, Harland

landscape french impressionism post-impressionism Northern Art Centers in California Southern Art Centers in California